Stendi-Film semi-autom. Abre-valas Rotativos - Roda dupla: Profundidade de trabalho de 50 ou 60 cm e largura de trabalho de a cm. Profundidade de trabalho de 40 a 65 cm e largura de trabalho de a cm. Profundidade de trabalho de 35 a cm e largura de trabalho de 60 a cm. Profundidade de trabalho de 65 a 75 cm e largura de trabalho de a cm. Profundidade de trabalho de 30 cm e largura de trabalho de trabalho de a cm. Profundidade de trabalho de 35 cm e largura de trabalho de a cm.
Grades disco rebocadas, simples e articuladas X — V , larg. Galucho S. Rua 5 de Outubro, - Real Braga Tel: Mais de 1. Liberdade, Vermelha Cadaval - Portugal Tel: Sucursal de Vieirinhos Pombal. Distrito lisboa Sede: Liberdade Vermelha Cadaval T. Zona Ind. Melhor juntos. Despontadoras em forma de 2 L invertidos ou em U invertido. Trabalho da cepa: Altura de limpeza — mm.
Diferentes alternativas de equipamento. Info kramp. Qta do Cabo, lt. Maria da Feira Tel. Ferro Lufrei - Padronelo - Amarante - Tel. N 1, Km 82 — Benedita - Tel. Grupo Seprem Pq. Estrada de Nelas, Km 1,2 - Viseu - Tel: Tractores industriais. Ferragial - S. Maschio Gaspardo S. Como equipamento standard: Equipamento standard: Componentes do semeador: Particularmente usado no trabalho do solo com restos de culturas.
Largura de transporte: Pode ser montado com rolos de grades, escarificadores rotativos e outros equipamentos. O agitador de sementes pode ser facilmente retirado. Flancos de perfil liso para evitar danos mesmo quando trabalha em vinhedos estreitos. Podem equipar com soco ou disco duplo. Soco e duplo disco.
Um resultado claro Em 1 cm3 de calda aplicada quantas gotas, quantos cm2 tratados? Alto da Boavista — Sousel Tel: Mostratuarte Lda. Zona Industrial da Pousa, Lt. Lagril - Soc. Agricola e Industrial, S. Terra Bastos, Lda. Rua da Espinheira, n. Martinho da Gandara Oliveira de Azemeis T: Algarsilva - Com. Agricolas, Lda. Pegada - Tavira T: Lagril — Soc. Rua da Estalagem, 2 - Apartado 48 Moura T: Tramaqnor, Lda. Agrovinhais, Lda. Catraia da Alegria - Guarda T: EN 1 — Covinhas - Meirinhas T: Henriques, 5 - Bombarral T: Albieuropa - Tractores e Aut.
Zona Industrial, Lt. Carvalho, Lda. Zona Industrial - Av. Francisco Fino, 61 Portalegre T: Angola, Lt. Ceifa, Lda. Rua da Escola Velha Branca T: B - Cascalheira — Riachos Riachos T: Largo da Cerca S. Pedro do Sul T: Poeta Cavador - Moita T: Robusto, trabalhador e silencioso: MF Motor. Especificado por si; o seu tractor! O novo modelo MF foi concebido para satisfazer as suas necessidades. MF Atalaia - Ribeirinha Angra do Heroismo Tel: Delgada Tel: Beja Cameirinha Maq. Braga C. Rua da Estrada — Nogueira Apart. Rua dos Restauradores - Palmeira Braga Tel: Estrada de Vinhais, Km.
Bairro de S. Castelo Branco D. Coimbra Agromondego — Repr. Estrada Nacional 4 - km 56 Vendas Novas Tel: Lisboa Auto Mec. Alto da Boavista Sousel Tel: Porto Tractor Real. Viseu J. Estrada de Nelas, Km. Alto da Aveleira S. Auto Agricola Sobralense, Lda. Motor Tier 3, 4 cilindros Turbo Pot. Barra de corte de cereal de elevada capacidade m Barra de corte de cereal de capacidade extra m. Estamos sempre preparados para o ajudar: Medidas extremas, cuidado extremo!
Nova rocha, lda. A Recinsa conta atualmente com mais de Sede Central - P. Campina - Est. Donai - Est. Vinhais R. Capacidade m Capacid. Capacidade m3 Capacid. Tractomoz, S. Zona Industrial - Apartado 41 Estremoz Tel: Estremoz Sede: Armando A. Silva, 47 - Z. Ferreira do Alentejo - R.
DESDE DESDE 5. Vibrocultor 10 mod. Vibroflex 26 mod. PH S: DESDE 3. DESDE 7. DESDE 1. Foto de cima: DESDE 2. Tractorave, Lda. Dias - Macedo de Cavaleiros Alfredo Dias - alfredo. P - Pombal Adelino - gerencia. Bartolomeu de Messines Daniel Calado - danielcalado hotmail. Lagril- Soc. FARO Est. Recta de Vale da Madre Mogadouro T: Zona Industrial das Cantarias R.
D-2 Castelo Branco T: Manuel I — Alferrarede Abrantes T: Padre Firmino Augusto Martins, Bl. Rua dos Namorados, 46 Cantanhede T: Luis Henriques, 5 - Bombarral T: Rua de S. Email jpc. By-Speed raio de viragem. Plastificadoras de fardos redondos RW RW Motope, Lda. Agronunes, Lda. Loja da Floresta, Lda. Arlindo Lopes Unipessoal, Lda. Rua da Terra, 21 Costa de Lavos T. Auto Henr. Manuel Arraiolos, Lda.
Smap, Lda. Matos da Ranha - Vermoil Pombal T. Ciclo Agro Pec. Jorge, Lda. Maquirural, Lda. Rua D. Tractoramos, Lda. Martins, R. Tejo, Abrantes T. Domingos de Rana T. Unitractores, Lda. Miguel de Poiares, Lt. Agro-Gaspares, Lda. A largura dos novos modelos situa-se entre os 1,6 e 2,0 metros apenas.
Apenas o tamanho mais pequeno constitui novidade. Venha personalizar o seu Valtra. O novo design da frente e do chassis do carregador frontal melhora a produtividade do trabalho carregador frontal. Faz parte da nossa maneira de pensar, que o conforto do condutor aumenta a produtividade e a economia. Vilablareix, Pol. Kubota L - 4. Monosem PNU - 3. Reboal 3. Nodet 1. Tractores usados: Fiat - 4. Estava assim criado o trio que considerava essencial para poder atingir o sucesso. Rapidamente, esta empresa familiar transformou-se numa empresa reconhecida por todo o nordeste transmontano.
New Holland TS - Goldoni 59 HLD - 1. Agrifull A80 DT - 9. Annovi Reverberi A45 - 8. Fiona Apollo SR 2. Abre regos 3L Hidr. Ford DT - 8. Fiat - 7. Fiat Special - 3. Vendas - Ligeiros e Comerciais:. Vendas Novas: Pedro Rita etelgra. Deutz-Fahr - 5. Galucho CH H - 1. Galucho - 8. D3 rastos - 9. Case-IH - Galucho CH 2F H. See More. Rubroprod Agrimaster M.
Dias Macedo de Cavaleiros A. Central da Igreja Nova Mafra J. IMTT - Fonte: Tratores Classe 3 Classe 4 Classe 5 Classe 1: This paper attempts initially at making a bibliographical review of all that was written on the subject of drilling fluids up to now. It also mentions some theoretical aspects regarding the process of gas dissolution in diesel oils, in order to produce an understanding of how the dissolution mechanism is processed.
For a same increase in measured volume on the surface, the amount of gas incorporated into the fluid is significantly larger if the gas is dissolved in the oil phase than if it is emulsified in the fluid, as occurs when the fluid is water base. This paper has the goal of warning drilling engineers and technicians about this problem, as well as presenting charts and equations that allow for a more realistic evaluation of the amount of gas incorporated into oil fluids.
Alcohol biodiesel from frying oil residues; Biodiesel etilico a partir de oleo de fritura residual. Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Virtual Internacional de Mudancas Globais], E-mail: The environmental gains obtained by the utilization of residual oil, avoiding that this oil be released in the nature, and the economic gains coming from the generation and utilization of ethanol allowing the production of biodiesel be an viable alternative.
Machado, Jose Carlos V. Full Text Available The application of academic information system siakad a web-based college is essential to improve the academic services. Siakad the application has many obstacles, especially in dealing with a high amount of access that caused the overload. Moreover in case of hardware or software failure caused siakad inaccessible.
The solution of this problem is the use of many existing servers where the load is distributed in the respective server. Need a method of distributing the load evenly in the respective server load balancing is the method by round robin algorithm so high siakad scalability. As for dealing with the failure of a server need fault tolerance for the availability siakad be high.
This research is to develop methods of load balancing and fault tolerance using software linux virtual server and some additional programs such as ipvsadm and heartbeat that has the ability to increase scalability and availability siakad. While high availability is obtained from the server's ability to perform failover or move another server in the event of failure.
Thus implementing load balancing and fault tolerance can improve the service performance of siakad and avoid mistakes. Thermal polymerization of Moringa oleifera oil; Termopolimerizacao do oleo de Moringa oleifera. Melo, Tania M. It is increasingly clear both for society and the scientific community, that is necessary to find alternatives to reduce the use of polymeric materials because of their damage to the environment.
One way to minimize the environmental problems related to the use of polymers is try to make them quickly degradable. In this study it was obtained a material with polymeric appearance derived from heating of the vegetable oil extracted from seeds of Moringa oleifera. The resulting product is an interesting alternative to obtain polymeric materials that may have biodegradable characteristics, coming from a renewable source and low cost. Moringa oil can be used since it has a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, and its main constituent oleic acid.
It was obtained a polymeric material, malleable, high viscosity, with some elasticity, low crystallinity and no unpleasant odor. Rheological behaviour of hydrocolloids for oil recovery; Comportamento reologico de hidrocoloides para recuperacao de oleo.
Correia, Denise Z. Escola de Quimica; Dutra, Eduardo S. In crude oil extraction, water can be injected into the well secondary oil recovery. The amount of the oil extracted decrease after some operation time. In order to improve the oil recovery, polymer flooding would subsequently be used tertiary oil recovery.
The aim of this work was to study the rheological behavior of polyacrylamide, xanthan gum, guar gum and their blends in seawater solutions, and the rheology of a crude oil. The xanthan gum presented the greatest values of G' when compared to the other polymers, which means that its structure is more rigid. The oil showed G' values lower than G'' values in low and high frequencies of oscillation. Steady measurements revealed pseudoplastic behavior for polymers and Newtonian behavior for the oil.
Full Text Available Fundamentos: Hygroscopical behaviour of basic electrodes in a tropical humid climate. Comportamiento microscopico de ciertos electrodos revistidos de caracter basico en clima tropical humedo. The study of the wetting kynetics of basic electrodes in a tropical humid climate is very important since the water contained in them is the main source for the atomic hydrogen absorbed by the fused metal during electric arc welding. It is also the origin of multiple defects in the added metal. A calculating method is established for evaluating the kynetics of wetness incorporation to the coating of basic electrodes exposed to a humid tropical climate.
The method is based on the Fick's diffusion equation for both adequate system geometry and boundary conditions, which allows the evaluation of the effective diffusion coefficient and critical times of exposure to the different environments, along with the packing and storage conditions of electrodes. Borrowing Basics. This module, an introduction to credit, is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide.
It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to decide when and how to use…. Bank On It. This module, an introduction to bank services, is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instuctor guide and a take-home guide. It is designed to enable participants to build a relationship with…. Check It Out. This module on how to choose and keep a checking account is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide.
It is designed to enable participants to open and keep a…. Basic aspects of the carbon dioxide corrosion in oil and gas production; Aspectos basicos de la corrosion por dioxido de carbono en la produccion de petroleo y gas. Corrosion has an important impact inside the oil and gas companies, no only in economics but also in safety, environmental and social aspects.
After several decades of investigation of these corrosion processes, there are still several mechanisms not fully understood. Author 19 refs. Basic aspects of the Cerro Prieto reservoir water recharge; Aspectos basicos de la recarga de agua al reservorio de Cerro Prieto. The Cerro Prieto geothermal field, located 30 km South of Mexicali City, Baja California, has at present an installed capacity of MW in geothermal power plants, that operating with endogenous steam, make use of the underground energy by means of deep wells, from which about 80 million cubic meters per year of high enthalpy water and steam mixture are extracted.
During the exploitation physical an chemical changes in the hydrothermal fluids discharged by the wells have been detected, which shows, among other things, an elevated water recharge, located towards the West area of the field and a low recharge in the part of the east zone area. For this reason the hot brine waste re-injection is recommended, previously treated to eliminate the silica excess to thermally an hydraulically recharge the reservoir in that part of the field. Durante la explotacion se han percibido cambios fisicos y quimicos en los fluidos hidrotermales descargados por los pozos, lo que indica, entre otras cosas, una recarga elevada de agua localizada hacia el poniente del campo y una recarga baja en una zona de la parte oriental.
Por ello se recomienda la reinyeccion de salmuera geotermica caliente de desecho previamente tratada para eliminar el exceso de silice para recargar termica e hidraulicamente el reservorio en esa parte del campo. Results obtained.
Criterios basicos seguidos por Hunosa en sus restauraciones de la mineria a cielo abierto Experiencias obtenidas. Calvo Zamorano, R. Hunosa Spain.
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Although opencast mining is both the oldest and safest method of mineral extraction employed by man, it is, paradoxically, gradually being replaced by deep mining. This is not for logical and inevitable reasons such as difficulty of access from the surface in the case of deep-lying reserves, nor because deposits are to be found beneath large water courses, the sea or urban developments. Indeed, this change is attributable entirely to economic factors.
Furthermore, in coal mining, this substitution of one method of working for another is almost total. Influence of laser design parameters on the hydrodynamics of microfusion plasmas; Influencia de los parametros basicos del laser sobre la hidrodinamica de plasmas para microfusion. The analysis can be easily extended to the case of a plasma initially occupying a half-space, and throws light on the hydrodynamics of laser fusion plasmas.
Author 51 refs. The influence of acid and base waste on the activated sludge system; Influencia de vertidos acidos y basicos sobre el sistema de fangos activados. A study has been made of the effect of acid and base waste on the microorganisms in the activated sludge reactor. This effect was monitored using the classical control parameters SVS and the percentage of organic matter eliminated and by measuring the activity of the microorganisms specific breathing rate and percentage of active cells. The results obtained indicate that the macrobiotic is affected at the extremes of the pH range pH 4,5 and pH In the tests carried out with pH 6 and 9, the microorganisms activity declined at first,but the system eventually recovered and returned to levels of activity similar to those prior to the test.
It was also found that deviations of the supply towards acid pH had a greater negative effect on the reactor than identical deviations towards baseness. Author 12 refs. Basic aspects of the use of reverse osmosis in indirect potable reuse; Aspectos basicos de la aplicacion de la osmosis inversa a la reutilizacion potable indirecta. Wastewater reclamation and reuse is an increasing activity in those countries who are facing water restrictions both in quality and quantity, and it has become an integral part of water resources management.
Among several applications of reclaimed wastewater, one of the most interesting and innovative is indirect potable reuse. This consists in the purposeful augmentation of surface or groundwater resources with highly treated reclaimed water which will ultimately serve as a source of drinking water. There are world-wide experiences confirming that this kind of application is safe. The use of reverse osmosis for wastewater reclamation is very interesting and the use of this in indirect potable reuse started more that thirty years ago, mainly in USA.
However the extension of this kind of applications is in someway low, not for economic issues or technology faults,but the ignorance, distrust or public opinion rejection. In this paper, the most important challenges, from a technical and scientific point of view, of indirect potable reuse are discussed to allow it to be used as a safe, reliable and additional water source: Author 16 refs.
This study examined the application of the Basic Direct Instruction Model BDIM , a methodology designed to maximize student interest in instrumental and methodological courses, to graduate level educational leadership students. The research used qualitative techniques and a participatory approach with a sample of 92 beginning level Masters…. Basic design criteria for an impact test frame for safety glazing; Criterios basicos de diseno de banco de ensayos para impactos de vidrios de seguridad.
The Spanish Building Code establishes the essential requirements of safety and habitability that buildings must satisfy. The Basic Document of Safety in Use and Accessibility identifies some critical areas where falling through brittle elements may cause a risk to the user. The document also establishes the minimum performance of glasses located in such areas, according to the impact procedure described in UNE-EN However, this standard does not provide detailed information about the characteristics of the test equipment, but indicates a final calibration as validation test.
To better achieve a successful manufacture of a pendulum complying with calibration limits, a proposal of the basic design criteria of a test frame for impacts of safety glazing is presented in this paper. Prototypes and results have been evaluated using dynamic design criteria of the impact phenomenon. Three criteria proposed and applied in the design and manufacture of a real test frame have helped to achieve the calibration required by the UNE-EN The repeatability and reproducibility of the tests presented in this paper also guaranty the robustness of the set-up.
Evaluation of a diesel engine running with stationary mixtures of soybean oil and reused oil diesel; Avaliacao de um motor diesel estacionario funcionando com misturas de oleo de soja reutilizado e oleo diesel. Maronhas, Maite E. This work aimed to examine the reuse of soybean oil to drive the engine stationary. The values found justifying the use of mixtures of diesel and soybean oil reused, but the technical aspects, especially regarding the wear of the engine, must be evaluated to indicate the use after a long period of engine operation.
Performance evaluation of small scale internal combustion engine with mixtures for diesel oil-palm oil; Avaliacao do desempenho do motor de combustao interna de pequeno porte com misturas oleo diesel - oleo de dende. Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico], Emails: Seye62omar yahoo. This work aims at the performance evaluation of the Cummins 4B The palm oil in nature is mixed manually, what unfortunately will influence the engine performance as it hinders the combustion.
The test protocol will include the biodiesel, later on. The motor is coupled to a dynamometer, whose operation consists of the acceleration and deceleration of water in order to simulate the effect of a load being applied to the motor. The system is controlled by the software LT commander that allows the start up and the shutdown of the engine from the screen of the computer that also monitors the following parameters as speed of rotation of the motor RPM , applied torque N-m , potency hp , temperature of the lubricating oil, temperature of the water in the entrance and exit of the motor, and temperature of the environment deg C , pressures of the lubricating oil and of opening of the injector mBar.
This equipment also determines the combustion parameters as excess of air and the efficiency. The technical results present the efficiency variation, the pressure of the fuel, monoxide carbon, NOx emissions, Oxygen content in the exhaust gases, for the different mixture proportions. Experimental evaluation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines using blends of crude castor oil and diesel; Avaliacao experimental do desempenho e emissoes de motores diesel usando misturas de oleo de mamona e oleo diesel.
This work refers to the experimental evaluation of diesel generators operating with blend of crude castor oil and diesel. Performance and emissions tests were accomplished in a diesel engine of direct injection. Because of the high viscosity of the blend a device was installed on the engine in order to lower the blend viscosity. A comprehensive analysis of the results obtained in these tests indicates the possibility of use of the blend of castor oil and diesel as fuel for diesel-generators, with modifications introduced in the engines. Energy consumption of an agricultural an agricultural tractor operating in dynamometer using with diesel and chicken oil biodiesel; Consumo energetico de um trator agricola operando em bancada dinamometrica com oleo diesel e biodiesel de oleo de frango.
The efficiency of energy use in agricultural machinery is dependent on the efficiency of internal combustion diesel cycle, their genuine propellants. However, some biofuels may offer a better yield due to some peculiar characteristics such distinctions in calorific value. Many studies have demonstrated a better utilization of the energy content when operating with biodiesel and with binary mixtures with diesel oil.
In this study, tests were conducted on a dynamometer bench to evaluate the energy consumption of a tractor engine with four cylinders and 53 kW 72 hp , operating with biodiesel and chicken oil mixture with diesel oil. The results showed that increasing the proportion of biodiesel was favorable to improve the utilization of the energy content, thus increasing the thermal efficiency of the engine.
The best result was obtained with pure biodiesel B with consumption of On the other hand the witness had the lowest use B5 with Economic and technical considerations on the use of vegetable oils as fuel substitute for diesel oil; Consideracoes economicas e tecnicas sobre o uso de oleos vegetais combustiveis como substituto de oleo diesel. The introduction of bio diesel in the Brazilian energy matrix has been mainly motivated by the governmental actions, which foresees social and economical development to the country in a program that allows the use of different oil seed crops as raw materials for biofuels production.
Cost estimates considering the average price received by the farmer and the oil content of each vegetable shows that the minimum cost of bio fuel was about 1,1 castor bean ; 1,8 peanut ; 2,0 soy beans ; 3,3 corn higher than the average cost of fossil diesel from to The oleaginous plants that have a higher oil content and smaller agricultural production cost to produce bio fuels are economically most feasible and they should be prioritized in the government program so that it may become economically sustainable along the years, as well as generate adequate profit to the farmers of each culture.
The feasibility of National Program for Biofuels Use and Production and both economical and environmental aspects should also consider the destination of the main by-products of the biofuel productive chain such as the left over cakes after extraction of the oil and glycerine produced during the transesterification process.
Characterization of diesel oil mixtures with soy oil used for activation of engines of internal combustion; Caracterizacao de misturas de oleo diesel com oleo de soja reutilizado para acionamento de motores de combustao interna. Alternative energy sources have been studied in several countries, with emphasis on ways of obtaining and using more efficient. To determine the specific gravity was used beaker, thermometer and a balance for each mixture was adjusted a regression model to estimate the bulk density as a function of temperature 25 to 90 deg C.
The tests were performed calorimetric using a bomb calorimeter determines the calorific value , the variation in calorific value followed a descending order with respect to OD with the increasing content of OSR. The OSR is efficient for use in internal combustion engines in small proportions.
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Silva, V. Departamento de Engenharia Quimica. This study aimed to evaluate the oil removal capacity in synthetic emulsions using clay vermiculite expanded and hydrophobized. From the isotherms it found that the correlation coefficients showed that the Langmuir, Freundlich, Langmuir sigmoidal Hill Sigmoidal well describe the adsorption behavior of vermiculite clay.
However, the experimental data were best fitted to the Hill sigmoid model. Design of three-phase gravity separators for heavy oils; Projeto de separadores trifasicos para oleos pesados. Silva, Rosivania P. The primary processing of crude oil consists in the separation of oil, gas, water and solids suspensions, if present , the conditioning of the hydrocarbons for transportation to the refinery, and the water treatment for re-use. With the discovery of significant fields of heavy oil in Brazil, whose densities are close to the density of water and viscosities are about hundreds to thousand times higher than the viscosity of water, the production and primary processing of this fluid with usual technology is not attractive and often unfeasible.
Therefore, this work intends to define strategies to efficiently separate these liquids, emphasizing the physical aspects of separation. Mathematica software was used for the equation modeling, which governs the horizontal separation vases dimensioning, allowing the observation of the influence of many variables on the separator dimensions. Synthesis and characterization of polyanhydride derived from castor oil; Sintese e caracterizacao de polianidrido derivado do oleo de mamona.
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Borges, Fernando de M. Polyanhydrides are biopolymers already used as drug carriers, that allow the controlled release of the drug in vivo. Currently, these polymers are produced from a polyol, such as ethyleneglycol. In this work we synthesized a polyanhydride from castor oil, from the derivatization of oil via alcoholysis reaction.
These techniques allowed confirmation of the polymer formation. Environmental compensation application in the oil and gas sector; Aplicacao da compensacao ambiental no segmento de oleo e gas. Silva, Lucia H. The regulation of the law no 9. Then, until now, this legal requirement have been applied in a heterogeneous form to the environmental licensing. The various applied criterions, the huge subjectivity in the impact level assessment, and the influence of this requirement in the licensing schedule, associate to the oil and gas sector project costs point to a relevant impact in the feasibility of the oil and gas sector projects.
Based in the percentages that IBAMA had established for the oil and gas sector was esteemed some costs destined to the environmental compensation. The law implementation without inhibition of investments in the country depends on the involved sectors articulation. The different plantations for production of vegetable fuel oils; Os diferentes cultivos para producao de oleos vegetais combustiveis.
Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. This paper identifies how the National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel could spread itself by the geographic regions from the specific characteristics and the present panoram production of those plantations. Combining the productions of dende, peanut, corn, soybean, common coconut, cotton, castor oil, sunflower and canola from each geographic region with average revenue in oil for the reference year of , it was calculated the potential of oil generation for the South Diesel oil: This paper addresses to analyze the Brazil possibility to be a self - sufficient diesel oil producer.
Diesel increase production as result to modernization effort and technological development implemented by PETROBRAS in its refinery and this increase is greater than internal demand for the product. With that in the short run Brazil could cease is international condition of oil diesel importer.
Energetic balance of castor oil methyl and ethyl esters; Balanco energetico de esteres metilicos e etilicos de oleo de mamona. Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. Castor oil Ricinus communis L. An energetic balance was performed based on LCA - Life Cycle Analysis principles and Input-Output Analysis, comparing the castor oil energy performance with others traditional cultures: Energy balance O-I was positive in both production ways methyl and ethyl independent of coproduct use allocation alternative.
The relation Output-Input O-I calculated for castor oil biodiesel [1. Both indicators suggest the energy and environmental viability of the castor oil biodiesel, provided that high agricultural productivity higher than 1. Since solvents of petroleum origin are now strictly regulated worldwide, there is a growing demand for using greener, bio-based and renewable solvents for extraction, purification and formulation of natural and food products. The ideal alternative solvents are non-volatile organic compounds VOCs that have high dissolving power and flash point, together with low toxicity and less environmental impact.
They should be obtained from renewable resources at a reasonable price and be easy to recycle. Based on the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, vegetable oils could become an ideal alternative solvent to extract compounds for purification, enrichment, or even pollution remediation. A focus on simulation of solvent-solute interactions and a discussion of polar paradox theory propose a mechanism explaining the phenomena of dissolving polar and non-polar bioactive components in vegetable oils as green solvents with variable polarity.
Heavy oil recovery: The maritime accidents that result in oil spill are high on the public environmental concerns, because of these; the oil industry has a high priority to prevent and control them. Heavy oils, the most difficult kind of oil to be recovered, could impact the maritime environmental with a different approach, it could impact the water column and the sea bottom, so much different them the float oil. One these environmental impacts could be done by.
This challenger have been overcome by the development of procedures that manner the heavy oil behavior on waterways, gulf and sea could be understood. Once this process could be understood to become easy monitoring the oil track and mitigate the oil impact on the water environment. Un nuevo caso de resistencia a un bismuto oleo -soluble: Shale oil production chain mapping; Mapeamento de processos do ciclo de obtencao de oleo a partir do xisto.
Tamanaha, Rodrigo T. Reliable rock mechanical information is very important for optimum reservoir development. This information can help specialists to accurately estimate reserves, reservoir compaction, sand production, stress field orientation, etc. In all cases, the solutions to problems involving rock mechanics lead to significant cost savings.
Consequently, it is important that the decisions be based on the most accurate information possible. For the describing rock mechanics, cores represent the major source of data and therefore should be of good quality. However, there are several well conditions that cause coring and core recovery to be difficult, for example: The problem becomes even worse in high-inclination wells with long horizontal sections. In such situations, the optimum selections of core heads become critical. This paper will discuss the most important design features that enable core heads to be matched precisely to various challenging applications.
Cases histories will be used to illustrate the superior performance of selected core heads. They include coring in horizontal wells and in harsh well conditions with critical mud losses. Drop hammer tests with different shock strut models and shock strut oils were performed at temperatures ranging to C. The various shock strut models do not differ essentially regarding their springing and damping properties at low temperatures; however, the influence of the different shock strut oils on the springing properties at low temperatures varies greatly.
Evaluation of the agricultural tractor using biofuel and diesel oil; Avaliacao de um trator agricola utilizando biocombustivel e oleo diesel. Test with alternative fuels is essential to evaluate the performance of machines and engines. Speed of displacement, slip wheels, force traction bar and fuel consumption was evaluated in areas under tillage and no-tillage. The speed of displacement of the set presented similar behavior in tillage and no-tillage.
Bigger values mean force in the bar of traction, slip and fuel consumptions had been observed for no-tillage with the tractor operating with diesel. Bigger values mean consumption the biofuel had been observed in areas under tillage. The coverings of the soil had influenced in the values of force bar traction, slip wheels, speed of displacement and fuel consumption. Catalyst performance in magnetic esterification methyl soy oil; Desempenho de catalisador magnetico em esterificacao metalica do oleo de soja.
Araujo, N. Laboratorio de Sintese de Materiais Ceramicos. Growing concerns about the environment have encouraged the search for new fuels, including biodiesel, obtained from lipid sources that react with alcohol and catalyst. From the XRD it was observed the formation of inverted spinel phase. The results indicate biodiesel conversion of Thermochemical methods for the treatment of oil contaminated sand; Metodo termoquimico para tratamento de areia contaminada por oleo. Pimenta, Rosana C. The Nitrogen Generating System SGN in Portuguese is a thermochemical method first developed for cleaning and removal of paraffin deposits in production and export pipelines.
SGN is based on a redox chemical reaction between two salts which is catalyzed in acidic pH. The reaction is strongly exothermic and its products are nitrogen, sodium chloride, water and heat. All reaction products are harmless to the environment. In January there was a major oil spill in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, which contaminated tons of sand. SGN technology has proved to be efficient, fast, low cost and ecologically correct method for cleaning contaminated sand and can be applied in loco right after a contamination event.
Thermochemical method for the treatment of oil contaminated sand; Metodo termoquimico para tratamento de areia contaminada por oleo. This work, based on NGS Nitrogen Generating System technology, was adapted for cleaning contaminated sand and recovering of spilled oil. NGS is a thermochemical method first developed for removal of paraffin deposits in production and export pipelines. The method is based on a strongly exothermic redox chemical reaction between two salts catalyzed in acidic pH.
The reaction products are harmless to the environment and consist of nitrogen, sodium chloride, water and heat.
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After treatment, removed oil can be securely returned to refining process. The method has proved to be efficient, fast, low cost and ecologically correct method for cleaning contaminated sand and can be applied in place right after a contamination event. First Brazilian patent for dielectric vegetable oil for transformers; Primeira patente brasileira de oleo dieletrico vegetal para transformadores.
Carioca, Jose O. The present paper discuss the development of different insulating oils for electric power transformers during the last hundred years and analyze comparatively the potential for the use of vegetable oils as a source for green dielectric oils, due to its high level of biodegradability, nontoxic, material compatibility, good electric strength and insulation properties, long-term oxidative and thermal stability, relatively low pour point and reasonable cost.
Based on these premises, the authors developed a new type of insulating fluid based on Brazilian vegetable oils never used before for this purpose. This product is competitive with similar and patented products developed from canola and soya vegetable oils. Production of vegetal oil for energetic purposes; Producao de oleo vegetal com fins energeticos a partir de oleoginosas perenes.
The technology to obtain vegetable oil from trans esterification is already dominated. Comparative evaluation of online oil and gas monitor; Avaliacao de monitores de teor de oleo e graxa em linha. Petroleum is predominantly recovered in form of water in oil emulsions, which are stabilised by petroleum resins and asphaltenes, the colloidal disperse components of crude oil. The water phase, separated during the production process, consists of a dilute oil in water emulsion, commonly called produced water. There are a wide variety of methods for determination of oil in produced water that are commercially based on a number of technique.
On line continuously monitoring shall be particularly useful in providing information to assist in optimising the separation process and also to attend the environmental legislation for discharge the produced water. There are a wide variety of on line oil in water monitors that are commercially available based on a number of technique.
In this paper, a comparative evaluation was made between some methods of on line oil in water detecting. These are light scattering and ultraviolet fluorescence technique. A brief description of the optical methods will be discussed and some of associated problems and limitation are pointed. The work was done in a specific experimental set up that allows the simultaneous pumping of crude oil and water through a calibrated restriction in a pipe has been used. A permanent pressure drop induced by the restriction leads to the dispersion of the oil droplets in the water phase.
The monitors based on light scattering technique tested show good agreement between monitor reading and the oil dispersion used. Otherwise for ultraviolet fluorescence based monitors show a significant effect of the variation of oil type. Full Text Available The applicability of the recently proposed procedure based on gradual sample addition to microwave-assisted pre-heated concentrated acid is limited by the sample viscosity. In this work, lubricating oil samples with high viscosity were encapsulated and manually added to the microwave-assisted pre-heated concentrated digestion mixture.
Content and chemical composition of Hyptis marrubioides essential oil in function of seasons. Os oleos essenciais sao principios odoriferos armazenados em celulas especiais da planta. O oleo essencial no genero Hyptis e usado como anestesico, antiespasmodico, antiinflamatorio e pode induzir aborto em doses elevadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influencia da sazonalidade no teor e composicao do oleo essencial de Hyptis marrubioides.
O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos inverno, primavera, verao e outono e seis repeticoes, totali The water-energy relationship: Energy and water resources are related in various ways, among which is the use of electric power in Water Supply Systems WSS. This dissertation identifies actions that can be carried out under the adoption of energy management systems by sanitation companies in order to better use energy resources and, therefore, water resources.
The importance of the input electric power to the WSS is presented, as well as the inefficiency of its use mainly due to losses in distribution networks, inappropriate operational routine and inadequate equipment. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of possible actions for energy management in the WSS. Basic studies for the solution of the criticality equation: This work collects six basic studies for the numerical solution of the criticality equation for thermal reactors. Use is made of the diffusion theory for two groups of energy and one dimension, applicable to bare reactors, bare equivalent, infinite bare equivalent and reflected reactors.
These studies were written in Mathcad 4. Protection of structures and buildings against the effect of electrical storms: The applied technology, supported by the analysis, the experimentation and the scientific observation, has demonstrated its effectiveness in the modernization of hundreds of industrial and commercial processes, of communication and services, as well as of the materials and methodologies used for the protection of diverse equipment and processes; from the protection in systems and equipment in high tension to systems that handle very low energy, among them are included electronic and digital devices.
Nevertheless, fundamental laws like the Ohm's Law, the gravity law or the universal gas law exist that, although they were discovered many years ago, still are effective and their validity provides invaluable elements for the development of new methods, technological processes and developments. One of the most relevant cases than amalgamates the application of fundamental criteria and the development of new technologies and its application in the so-called no conventional protective devices, constitute the protection against the effect of electrical storms in buildings and structures.
The worldwide application of these devices has generated skepticism of a great part of the scientific community, diverse reactions among the users and a firm position on the part of the manufacturers so that these technologies are included in international standards. The objective of this article is to offer the reader the basic information on the beginnings of the protection, the evolution that the protection methods against electrical storms have had since the XVIII century, the application of the fundamental criteria of protection in structures or modern buildings and their content, as well as the situation that prevails at the moment in the committees of the diverse national and international normative organizations with respect to the inclusion of the new technologies in the design guides.
Sin embargo, existen leyes fundamentales como la ley de Ohm, la ley de gravedad o la ley universal de gases que, pese a que fueron descubiertos hace muchos anos, siguen vigentes y su validez proporciona elementos invaluables para el desarrollo de nuevos metodos, procesos y desarrollos tecnologicos.
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Uno de los casos mas relevantes que amalgama la aplicacion de criterios fundamentales y el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologias y su aplicacion en los llamados dispositivos de proteccion no convencionales lo constituye la proteccion contra el efecto de las tormentas electricas en edificios y estructuras. La aplicacion de estos dispositivos en el ambito mundial ha generado escepticismo de una gran parte de la comunidad cientifica, reacciones diversas entre los usuarios y un postura firme por parte de los fabricantes para que dichas tecnologias sean incluidas en normas internacionales.
El objetivo de este articulo es ofrecer al lector la informacion basica sobre los inicios de la proteccion, la evolucion que los metodos de proteccion contra las tormentas electricas han tenido desde el siglo XVIII, la aplicacion de los criterios fundamentales de proteccion en estructuras o edificios modernos y su contenido, asi como la situacion que prevalece actualmente en los comites de las diversas organizaciones normativas nacionales e internacionales en lo referente a la inclusion de las nuevas tecnologias en las guias de diseno.
Methodology for conducting baseline environmental studies, applied to the environments of two nuclear sites; Metodologia para la realizacion de estudios de estado basico ambiental, aplicada a los entornos de dos emplazamientos nucleares. The methodology described can understand and document the characteristics of form geo referenced environmental baseline condition of the surroundings of nuclear power plants, covering the needs in this regard made by the legislation of environmental responsibility.
Claudia, Baptista M. Nowadays, there are major incentives for the construction of new refineries in Brazil: The refineries will be designed to process a mix of Brazilian national crudes. The main objects of this ambitious project are to produce high quality diesel and jet fuel from an elevated nitrogen content feedstock, minimizing capital expenditure and schedule.
Both refineries will have the same flow scheme with a target to maximize Middle distillate production for the European and local markets. In order to assure that the refinery scheme and the technologies selected will provide the best Net Present Value NPV , it was decided to perform a Design Competition process to select the company to provide the basic design for all Premium refineries.
As the concepts behind a Design Competition were new for PETROBRAS a rigorous process was developed and followed, which entailed contracting three benchmark companies with outstanding knowledge and experience in hydroprocessing to provide independent conceptual studies for a The vision was to utilize the same refinery scheme in the construction of the Premium I refinery which will have two identical trains processing The awarded company was selected based on technical and economic evaluations, supported by state of the art hydroprocessing technologies, block flow diagram optimization and heat integration.
The present paper discusses the design competition process, the refinery scheme adopted and the results achieved. Desiccation of sludges as instruments for solid radioactive wastes reduction; Planta de desecado de concentrados de evaporador y lodos como instrumento basico para la reduccion de residuos radiactivos solidos. In order to maintain as well as possible and optimize use of the radioactive waste storage capacity of El Carbil ENRESA and the Electric Sector put a series of actions into motion in to reduce and optimize radioactive waste processing.
As a result of this strategy, a moist waste desiccation system has been developed with Spanish technology by ENSA. This system was installed in Trillo NPP in and has operated satisfactorily for the past year, having significantly reduced the volume of waste generated by evaporator concentrates. This article describes the objectives, design and implementation of the desiccation system installed in Trillo NPP. Silva, A.
A; Souto, K. M; Silva, Adriano A. In last years, separation techniques by membranes and membranes grew of a laboratory simple tool for an industrial process with a considerable technical and commercial impact. Membrane can be defined as a barrier that separates two phases and that restricts, total or partially, the transportation of one or several present chemical species in the phases.
The morphology of the membrane and nature of the material that constitutes are some characteristics that are going to define application kind. The ideal structure for these filters is the asymmetric, formed by one or more layers of different pores size, with gradual reduction of the pores size, when approaches the side filtrate. Having in mind that the environmental legislations more process with membranes offers a new option to face these challenges.
The membranes typically used in the oil and water separation act as a barrier for the emulsified oil and solubilization. In the petroleum production and refined oil water mixed with oil is prosecuted in great volumes in lots of processes, this mixture should be treated to separate the oil of water before it can return to the environment or even to be reused in the process.
Evaluation of kraft paper chemical byproducts in insulating mineral oil of energized transformers; Avaliacao de subprodutos quimicos de papel tipo kraft em oleo mineral isolante de transformadores energizados. The insulating paper is a major determinant of the remaining lifetime of an electrical transformer, since it is not possible to analyse or replace this equipment during operation. However, using the quantification of the furanic compounds concentration formed in mineral oil, it is possible to infer about the quality of the material, confirming the presence of degradation.
Given the existence of new kinds of solid insulation, this research aimed at studying a new analytical methodology, using the techniques of liquid chromatography with mass detection of these substances in order to increase the reliability of the results, assisting the preventive maintenance. Characterization of contaminated oil with tritium, from of production of gas tripolar scintillators; Caracterizacao de oleo contaminado com tritio, proveniente da producao de centelhadores tripolares a gas.
Potiens Junior, Ademar J. The objective of this work was to develop a methodology to estimate the activity level present in radioactive oil samples. This oil is derived from vacuum pumps used to produce tension protector of electronic equipment in telecommunication area. The method consisted in obtain a calibration curve in counts per minute versus tritium activity. After the equipment calibration it was analyzed 3 batches of radioactive oil samples.
Alternatives for optimization of the heavy oil production in onshore marginal fields in Brazil; Alternativas para otimizacao de producao de oleos pesados em campos marginais terrestres no Brasil. Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia. The intention of this article is to present possible alternatives for optimization of the production of heavy oils in marginal onshore fields in Brazil.
The use of gas micro-turbines, the application of SAGD Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage , the use of the drilling technique for river crossing and to a proposal for a new system of the rig less workovers are approached. The focus is the search of the increment of the production, the increase of the factor of final recovery, the global reduction of the costs and the minimization of the environmental impacts.
The volumes of heavy oils in Campos Basin and in national onshore areas they are significant and, therefore, techniques and procedures that optimize its production are strategic. In the Brazilian Northeast there are a series of small fields of low productivity, in general of heavy oils, some in production there are more than twenty years that need of a reduction of the cost for barrel to continue producing. A realistic and responsible posture with the use of probabilistics concepts, techniques of engineering of the reliability, adoption of 'tolerable' levels of risk associate to the return , attendance on line of the sceneries, premises and criteria, proposal of the methodology GERISK , are relevant factors that can propitiate not only the reduction of the cost for produced barrel as well as to take the an increase of the factor of final recovery of the field.
Difficulties for innovation in energy technology development: Centro de Desenvolvimento Sustentavel. Analysis of the vegetable oil as energy source, observing the troubles caused by technology innovation insertion in the Brazilian Electrical Matrix by the use of renewable alternative energy sources while competing with the products and systems' market leaders that use fossil sources. Evaluation of low toxicity mineral oil base drilling fluids; Avaliacao de fluidos de perfuracao a base de oleo mineral de baixa toxidez.
This oil, as well as its mixture with aviation kerosene to reduce viscosity, was found adequate for use in drilling fluids together with other national products developed by companies that supply additives for drilling fluids in Brazil. We present the results of laboratory tests with systems of four different manufacturers, one of which was chosen for initial field tests. These tests, which were carried out at the Miranga and Bu River Fields, in the Drilling District of Bahia, produced satisfactory results.
We anticipate the use of these fluids in other areas where the company operates. Physico-chemical characterization of biodiesel from pests attacked corn oil; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica do biodiesel de oleo de milho danificado por pragas. Carvalho, Fabia M. The biodiesel is a renewable energy source alternative to fossil fuels.
The biodiesel synthesis can be made by many types of triglycerides transesterification, it is possible to use this biofuel in vehicles if it has the quality required from Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis ANP. Searching an application for pests attacked corn, there is feasibility technical for the biodiesel production from this corn oil. The biodiesel synthesis was made through ethyl transesterification process with alkaline catalyst using ethanol.
The biodiesel physical-chemical characterization was performed using ANP methods. Strategic optimization model and area planning for oil spill response; Modelo de otimizacao estrategico e de planejamento de area para resposta a derramamentos de oleo. Programa de Engenharia de Producao. This paper deals with strategic aspect of the oil spill response problem, that is, with the problem of deciding where to locate adequate capability to respond to potential oil spills.
In addition to locational considerations, the strategic oil spill response problem generally calls for decisions concerning the proper levels and types of equipment to be stockpiled, as well as for policies regarding the allocation of such capability among points of high oil spill potential. The oil spill optimization models can contribute with contingency plans that are prepared by responsible parties. It is described one model that address current legal requirements, in particular, the time-phasing of response, and the use of this model as a decision support by responsible parties.
Study of oil diesel degradation in soil using oxidative advanced processes; Estudo da degradacao do oleo diesel em solo utilizando processos oxidativos avancados. Santos, Suenia S. Recently it comes if observing several accidents during the exploration, refinement, transport and operation of storage of petroleum and yours derived, such as the diesel oil and the gasoline. In this paper We do a study of the degradation of the diesel oil in a characteristic soil of the state of Pernambuco using peroxide of hydrogen and Fenton reagent.
Those two processes are based on the generation of the radical hydroxyl OH. The variables and the studied levels were: The mass of the soil used in each experiment was of 5 g. It was observed that there were not significant differences in the degradation in relation to the peroxide volume. That found degradation was quite satisfactory being still due to study more economical conditions.
Main crops used to obtain fuel from vegetable oils in Brazil; Principais culturas para obtencao de oleos vegetais combustiveis no Brasil. This paper tries to identify how the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel may unfold itself in different geographical areas starting from the specific characteristics for each cultivation and volume production of each plant at present. This modest growth estimate requires caution on the part of the farmers and oil crushers and converters for they must project their investments correctly, so that their production can be absorbed by the market.
The oil yield per hectare and the land use per bio fuel ton are indicators which have a great importance to be considered in the national program to evaluate aspects of economic, social and environmental feasibility. Appearance of instabilities and fingering from interface in water-oil systems; Surgimento de instabilidades e digitacao a partir da interface em sistemas agua- oleo.
Quadri, Marintho B. Many operations and procedures in the petroleum industry are related to the immiscible displacement of a fluid by another one, as the secondary recovery of petroleum and pumping operation through pipelines of high viscosity oils. In this context, an stability analysis of the water-oil interface as well as of the factors that leads to the appearance of the viscous fingering phenomenon, represented by the viscous flowing of one phase that penetrates inside of the other one in the form of one or more fingers, is of major importance for the forecast, simulation and control of operations involving this kind of system.
From the theories of perturbation and unstable immiscible displacement of fluids, initially conceived for cells of parallel slabs Hele-Shaw , the authors intend to extend the concepts and adapt the criteria for the three-dimensional geometry in macroscopic scale. Oils from different depth in the Alagoas sub-basin distribution and concentration; Oleos em diferentes profundidades na sub-bacia Alagoas: Reboucas, Lucia M.
This paper reports the distribution and the concentration of n-alkane homologue series and the HPA compounds in 22 oils from Alagoas sub-basin, Pilar Field, Brazil. The n-alkane profile of whole oil gas chromatograms CG-FID to light, medium and heave oils represented no-biodegraded oils.
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